Citation information available on Google Scholar.


JES cover 34. Bruck, A.M.; Kim, M.A.; Ma, L.; Ehrlich, S.N.; Okasinski, J.S.; and Gallaway, J.W., “Bismuth Enables the Formation of Disordered Birnessite in Rechargeable Alkaline BatteriesJournal of the Electrochemical Society, 2020, 167, 110514.
PCCP cover 33. Marschilok, A. C.; Bruck, A.; Abraham, A.; Stackhouse, C.; Takeuchi, K. J.; Takeuchi, E. S.; Croft, M.; Gallaway, J.W., “Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) for operando materials characterization within batteriesPhysical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 2020.


JES cover 32. Gallaway, J. W.; Yadav, G. G.; Turney, D. E.; Nyce, M.; Huang, J.; Chen-Wiegart, Y.-C. K.; Williams, G.; Thieme, J.; Okasinski, J. S.; Wei, X.; Banerjee, S., “An Operando Study of the Initial Discharge of Bi and Bi/Cu Modified MnO2Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 2018, 165 (13), A2935-A2947.


JMCA cover 31. Yadav, G. G.; Wei, X.; Gallaway, J. W.; Chaudhry, Z.; Shin, A.; Huang, J.; Yakobov, R.; Nyce, M.; Vanderklaauw, N.; Banerjee, S., “Rapid electrochemical synthesis of δ-MnO2 from γ-MnO2 and unleashing its performance as an energy dense electrodeMaterials Today Energy, 2017, 6 (Supplement C), 198-210.
JMCA cover 30. Huang, J.; Yadav, G. G.; Gallaway, J. W.; Wei, X.; Nyce, M.; Banerjee, S., “A calcium hydroxide interlayer as a selective separator for rechargeable alkaline Zn/MnO2 batteriesElectrochemistry Communications, 2017, 81, 136-140.
JMCA cover 29. Turney, D. E.; Gallaway, J. W.; Yadav, G. G.; Ramirez, R.; Nyce, M.; Banerjee, S.; Chen-Wiegart, Y. C. K.; Wang, J.; D’Ambrose, M. J.; Kolhekar, S.; Huang, J. C.; Wei, X., “Rechargeable Zinc Alkaline Anodes for Long-Cycle Energy StorageChemistry of Materials, 2017, 29 (11), 4819-4832.
JMCA cover 28. Yadav, G. G.; Wei, X.; Huang, J.; Gallaway, J. W.; Turney, D. E.; Nyce, M.; Secor, J.; Banerjee, S., “A conversion-based highly energy dense Cu2+ intercalated Bi-birnessite/Zn alkaline batteryJournal of Materials Chemistry A, 2017, 5 (30), 15845-15854.
Nature Comm cover 27. Yadav, G.G.; Gallaway, J.W.; Turney, D.E.; Nyce, M.; Huang, J.; Wei, X.; and Banerjee, S. (2017) “Regenerable Cu-intercalated MnO2 layered cathode for highly cyclable energy dense batteriesNature Communications 8:14424.


US9419289 26. Sholklapper, T.; Gallaway, J.W.; Steingart, D.; Ingale, N.; and Nyce, M., “Alkaline battery operational methodology” United States patent US 9,419,289 B2, issued August 16, 2016.
US9379373B2 25. Banerjee, S.; Ito, Y.; Klein, M.; Nyce, M.E.; Steingart, D.; Plivelich, R.; Gallaway, J.W., “Nickel-Zinc Flow Battery” United States patent US 9,379,373 B2, issued June 28, 2016.
JOPS 24. Gallaway, J.W.; Hertzberg, B.J.; Zhong, Z.; Croft, M.; Turney, D.E.; Yadav, G.G.; Steingart, D.A.; Erdonmez, C.K.; and Banerjee, S. (2016) “Operando Identification of the Point of [Mn2]O4 Spinel Formation During γ-MnO2 Discharge Within BatteriesJournal of Power Sources 321, 135-142.


JMCA 23. Bhadra, S.; Hertzberg, B.J.; Hsieh, A.; Croft, M.; Gallaway, J.W.; Van Tassell, B.J.; Chamoun, M.; Erdonmez, C.; Zhong, Z.; Sholklapper, T.; and Steingart, D.A. (2015) “The Relationship between Coefficient of Restitution and State of Charge of Zinc Alkaline Primary LR6 Batteries” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 3(18) 9395-9400.
JES 22. Gallaway, J.W.; Menard, M.; Hertzberg, B.; Zhong, Z.; Croft, M.; Sviridov, L.A.; Turney, D.E., Banerjee, S.; Steingart, D.A.; and Erdonmez, C.K. (2015) “Hetaerolite Profiles in Alkaline Batteries Measured By High Energy EDXRDJournal of the Electrochemical Society 162 (1) A162-A168.
JOPS 21. Ingale, N.D.; Gallaway, J.W.; Nyce, M.; Couzis, A.; Banerjee, S. (2015) “Rechargeability and Economic Aspects of Alkaline Zinc-Manganese Dioxide Cells for Electrical Storage and Load LevelingJournal of Power Sources 276, 7–18.


Enzymatic Fuel Cells 20. Gallaway, J.W. “Mediated Enzyme Electrodes” Chapter 9, in Enzymatic Fuel Cells: From Fundamentals to Applications, Edited by Heather R. Luckarift, Plamen B. Atanassov, and Glenn R. Johnson. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.
JOPS 19. Turney, D.E., Shmukler, M., Galloway, K., Klein, M., Ito, Y., Sholklapper, T.Z., Gallaway, J.W., Nyce, M., Banerjee, S. (2014) “Development and testing of an economic grid-scale flow-assisted zinc/nickel-hydroxide alkaline batteryJournal of Power Sources 264, 49-58.
JMCA 18. Gallaway, J.W., Erdonmez, C.K., Zhong, Z., Croft, M., Sviridov, L.A., Sholklapper, T.Z., Turney, D.E., Banerjee, S. and Steingart, D.A. (2014) “Real-time materials evolution visualized within intact cycling alkaline batteries” Journal of Materials Chemistry A 2(8) 2757-2764.
JES 17. Gallaway, J.W., Gaikwad, A.M., Hertzberg, B., Erdonmez, C.K., Chen-Wiegart, Y.K., Sviridov, L.A., Evans-Lutterodt, K., Wang, J., Banerjee, S., and Steingart, D.A. (2014) “An in situ synchrotron study of zinc anode planarization by a bismuth additive” Journal of the Electrochemical Society 161(3) A275-A284.


Alan West cover 16. Gallaway, J.W. and West, A.C. “Bioelectrochemical Sensors” Chapter 11, in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering: An Introduction by Alan C. West, August 2012.


JES 15. Gaikwad, A.M., Gallaway, J.W., Desai, D., and Steingart, D.A. (2011) “Electrochemical-Mechanical analysis of printed silver electrodes in a microfluidic deviceJournal of the Electrochemical Society 158(2) A154-A162.


JES 14. Gallaway, J.W., Desai, D., Gaikwad, A., Corredor, C., Banerjee, S., and Steingart, D. (2010) “A lateral microfluidic cell for imaging electrodeposited zinc near the shorting conditionJournal of the Electrochemical Society 157(12) A1279-A1286.


JES 13. von Gutfeld, R.J., Gallaway, J.W., and West, A.C. (2009) “In Situ Immersion Plating of Copper and Nickel on Aluminum Using Laser Pulses for Oxide RemovalJournal of the Electrochemical Society 156(12) D564-D569.
JVB 12. Gallaway, J.W. and West, A.C. (2009) “The Effect of Acid on Superconformal Filling in 100 nm TrenchesJournal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 27(5), 2200-2205.
JES 11. Gallaway, J.W., Willey, M.J., and West, A.C. (2009) “Copper Filling of 100 nm Trenches using PEG, PPG, and a Triblock Copolymer as Plating SuppressorsJournal of the Electrochemical Society 156 (8) D287-D295.
JEAC 10. Hudak, N.S., Gallaway, J.W., and Calabrese Barton, S.A. (2009) “Formation of Mediated Biocatalytic Cathodes by Electrodeposition of a Redox Polymer and LaccaseJournal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 629, 57-62.
JES 9. Gallaway, J.W., Willey, M.J., and West, A.C. (2009) “Acceleration Kinetics of PEG, PPG, and a Triblock Copolymer by SPS during Copper ElectroplatingJournal of the Electrochemical Society 156(4) D146-D154.
JEAC 8. Gallaway, J.W. and Calabrese Barton, S.A. (2009) “Effect of Redox Polymer Synthesis on a Mediated Enzyme Oxygen CathodeJournal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 626, 149-155.
JES 7. Hudak, N.S., Gallaway, J.W., and Calabrese Barton, S.A. (2009) “Mediated Biocatalytic Cathodes Operating on Gas-Phase Air and Oxygen in Fuel CellsJournal of the Electrochemical Society 156 (1), B9-B15.


PNAS 6. Wheeldon, I.R., Gallaway, J.W., Calabrese Barton, S.A., and Banta, S.A. (2008) “Electron-Conducting Hydrogels from Bifunctional Metallo-PolypeptidesProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105 (40), 15275-15280.
JES 5. Gallaway, J.W. and West, A.C. (2008) “PEG, PPG, and Their Triblock Copolymers as Suppressors in Copper ElectroplatingJournal of the Electrochemical Society 155 (10), D632-D639.
JACS 4. Gallaway, J.W. and Calabrese Barton, S.A. (2008) “Kinetics of Redox Polymer-Mediated Enzyme ElectrodesJournal of the American Chemical Society 130, 8527-8536.
Biosens Bioelec 3. Gallaway, J.W., Wheeldon, I.R., Rincon, R., Atanassov, P., Banta, S.A., and Calabrese Barton, S.A. (2008) “Oxygen-Reducing Enzyme Cathodes Produced from SLAC, a Small Laccase from Streptomyces coelicolorBiosensors and Bioelectronics 23, 1229-1235.


ECS Transactions 2. Calabrese Barton, S.A., Deng, W., Gallaway, J.W., Levendovsky, S., Olson, T.S., Atanassov, P., Sorkin, M., Kaufman, A., and Gibbard, H.F. (2006) “Mixed-Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: Materials and Design SolutionsECS Transactions 1(6), 315-322.


Chem Rev 1. Calabrese Barton, S.A., Gallaway, J.W., and Atanassov, P. (2004) “Enzymatic Fuel Cells for Implantable and Microscale DevicesChemical Reviews 104, 4867-4886.

Recent Posts

Bi Enables the Formation of Disordered Birnessite in Rechargeable Alkaline Batteries

We have a new paper out in the Journal of the Electrochemical Society, written by Andrea Bruck. It continues our work on full 617 mAh/g rechargeability of MnO2 in alkaline batteries. Getting that full capacity reversibly enables a design pathway to get very inexpensive ($50/kWh) and high energy density (200 Wh/L) aqueous electrolyte rechargeable Zn-MnO2 batteries for the power grid. Aqueous electrolytes are desirable as an alternative to Li-ion batteries, which have flammable electrolytes, and become more of a safety risk at large scales.

Our main finding is the identification of an amorphous or “disordered” intermediate species during cycling. The figure above shows the voltage profile of the MnO2 cathode during cycling, and each section is labeled with the major material compound that is formed during that stage. (The discharge stages are labeled d1, d2, and d3. Likewise the charging stages are c1, c2, and c3.) We mix the MnO2 with bismuth oxide or Bi2O3, which is what makes it rechargeable. And during step c2, we have demonstrated a disordered compound we had never seen before. The reason we had never seen it is because all the other compounds are crystalline, and crystalline things are very easy to see. Disordered (or non-crystalline) things are often more challenging to put your finger on.

The figure above shows the structure of the layered birnessite or ẟ-MnO2, which consists of [MnO6] slabs separated by an interlayer. This data is from X-ray diffraction (XRD), which uses long-range crystallinity to produce a material fingerprint. This fingerprint is in the form of peaks or reflections, and the plot has the experimental data (black) compared to a theoretical calculation (red). We used a method called Rietveld refinement to match these and get the coordinates for all of the atoms in the material. (For example, we can tell the birnessite is hexagonal and the slab-to-slab distance is 7.131 Å)

However, you can’t observe a material by XRD if it doesn’t have good crystallinity, a.k.a. the “long-range order” to diffract X-rays. Instead we used operando Raman spectroscopy, which fingerprints materials using their response to a laser. Birnessite materials result in a series of Raman vibrational bands, the largest of which are ν1 and ν2. The figure above shows the Raman spectrum during the charge step both without Bi (top) and with Bi (bottom). In the top plots, the ν1 and ν2 bands didn’t appear until the blue dot, which is the c3 stage. However, with Bi, they appeared very early, even before the red dot, which is in the c2 stage. We know this is a disordered birnessite because it was not visible to XRD, but showed up clearly with Raman spectroscopy.

This is exciting because no one really knows why Bi makes birnessite rechargeable. Since we see it enables this formation of a disordered birnessite, that could be the key.

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